During the 14th and 15th centuries the Courts were held in Alcañiz three times, in 1371-72, 1436 and 1441-42. In February 1412 a significant event was celebrated in the Church Santa María la Mayor. After a long process initiated months before by some parlamentarians from Aragon and Catalonia, twenty-eight chapters were agreed stating the conditions for the King's election, a process which was called La Concordia de Alcañiz, which was previous to el Compromiso de Caspe (June 1412), the ceremony by which Fernando de Antequera was appointed King.
In the 16th century, the boundaries of the historical villa of Alcañiz started being drawn. This was a golden century for Alcañiz which was the cradle of an outstanding group of humanists, among others, Juan Sobrarias, Pedro Ruiz de Moros, Bernardino Gómez Miedes, Juan Lorenzo Palmireno, Domingo Andrés and Andrés Vives. Most of them devoted their lives to Teaching, Law, and Medicine. Some of them wrote latin poetry or historical cronics. Their educational background started in Alcañiz to continue in Valencia and later in Italy. Once they finished their studies some came back to their homeland. Nevertheless, their work reflects the local taste so typical of the Aragonese literature.